UNIVERSITY OF AGRIUCLTURAL AND HORTICULTURAL SCIENCES, SHIMOGA - A PROFILE

 

 

The University of Agricultural and Horticultural Sciences, Shimoga (UA&HS,S) is the first integrated university in the state of Karnataka, having both agricultural and horticultural sciences under its perview. It was established under the Karnataka Act no. 38 of 2012, vide notification no. Sam. Vya. Sha. ilakhe, 19 Shasana 2012, dated 21-09-2012 published in the Special Gazette of Karnataka, part IV – A, No. 656, on 21-09-2012 bringing it into immediate effect. It was carved out by separating seven districts from the jurisdictional area of University of Agricultural Sciences, Bangalore and including all the institutes coming under University of Horticultural Sciences, Bagalkot, in these seven districts. The jurisdictional area of UA&HS, Shimoga covers the districts of Shimoga, Chickamaglur, Udupi, Dakshina Kannada, Kodagu, Davanagere and Chitradurga.

 

I.             THE MANDATE

 

(a)    Imparting education towards development of quality human resource in different branches of agriculture and horticulture;

(b)   Furthering the advancement of learning and conducting of research in agriculture, horticulture and other allied sciences;

(c)    Undertaking the extension education of such science and technologies, specially for the rural people of the State;

(d)   Promoting partnership and linkages with national and international educational, research institutions and industries.

 

II.          INSTITUTES

 

EDUCATION

              

1.      Agricultural College, Shimoga: Is the present head quarters of the new University of Agricultural and Horticultural Sciences, Shimoga. The college was established in the year 1990. It imparts undergraduate education in agriculture leading to B.Sc.(Agri) degree programme and post-graduate degree programmes in the subjects of Agronomy, Genetics and Plant Breeding, Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, Agricultural Entomology and Plant Pathology. One year Diploma (only Sundays) in Agricultural Extension Services to Input Dealers (DAESI) is also offered to input dealers.

2.      Forestry College, Ponnampet: Established in the year 1995; was originally functioning at GKVK, Bangalore up to the year 1994, and then shifted to the present campus at Ponnampet. It has under graduate degree programme in B.F.Sc and Post graduate degree programme in Forest Resource Management.

3.      Horticultural College, Mudigere: Established in the year 1991; imparting undergraduate degree programme in B.Sc(Hort) and Post Graduate programmes in the subjects of Olericulture, Floriculture, Plantation Crops and Post Harvest Technology.

4.      Horticultural College, Hiriyur; Established in the year 2010; imparts undergraduate degree in B.Sc (Hort).

5.      Agricultural Dilpoma Institute, Kathalagere; Offers a two years, post matriculation Diploma course in Agriculture.     

RESEARCH

 

1.        Zonal Agricultural Research Station, Navile, Shimoga; Is located in the present headquarters of the UA&HS, Shimoga. Established as Regional Tobacco Research Station, in the year 1976, having Main Center of All India Coordinated Research Project on Tobacco and working on FCV tobacco. Additional research mandate on rainfed cropping systems of Southern transition Zone (Zone – 7) was added under National Agricultural Research Project, in the year 1982. It has developed and released two new high yielding and drought tolerant FCV tobacco varieties (Thrupthi and Sahyadri) and one new Sesamum variety viz., Tunga (Navile-1). Many technologies on  agro-techniques for higher productivity and fuel use efficiency have also been developed. Inland Fisheries Unit is working on composite fish culture and sweet water prawn culture.

2.        Areca Research Center, Agricultural College, Shimoga: Areca Research center funded by the local Areca marketing Co-operative societies and state government is serving the farmers of areca in solving their local problems both on station and on farmers fields.

3.        Organic Farming Research Center, Navile, Shimoga: Established in the year 2006, with State Government funds to conduct research on organic farming and to validate various local organic farming practices advocated by many. An organically based Integrated Farming System demonstration has been established on an area of twenty acres of land on the farm.

4.        Zonal Agricultural Research Station, Brahmavara, Udupi ; Established in the year 1982, under NARP Project to conduct research on cropping systems for Coastal Zone (Zone – 10). A sub center of AICRP(Rice) with a Breeder and an Entomologist is in operation. Large scale cashew nursery production is undertaken here.  

5.        Zonal Agricultural Research Station, Mudigere: Established as Cardamom Research Station, in the year 1957. AICRP (Cardamom) is in operation. Nursery production of cardamom is undertaken in this station. The mandate of research on Hill zone (Zone – 9) paddy and cropping systems was added under NARP, in the year 1982.

6.        Zonal Horticultural Research & Extension Station, Mudigere: Established by Horticultural University in the state, this station caters to the needs of surrounding horticultural growers of the zone.

7.        Zonal Agricultural Research Station, Babbur, Hiriyur: It was established in the year 1916, one of the oldest research stations to be established in the country and the state. It has developed salt tolerant paddy varieties. It was  later upgraded into a Zonal Agricultural research Station, to conduct research on crops and cropping systems of Central Dry Zone (Zone – 4). Main center of AICRP (Chick Pea) and a sub-center of AICRP on Onion are in operation at  this station.

8.        Zonal Horticultural research Station, Hiriyur: Established by Horticultural University in the state, this station caters to the needs of surrounding farmers growing coconut and other horticultural crops.

9.        Cashew Research Station, Ullal, Dakshina Kannada : Established in the year 1953 to conduct research on cashew. The station has developed many high yielding cashew varieties, viz. Ullal-1, Ullal-2, Ullal-3, Ullal-4, Ullal-5 and UN-50, which are widely grown by the farmers throughout the state. The station has supplied lakhs of grafts of these high yielding varieties to the farmers of Karnataka and neighbouring states.

10.    Agricultural Research station, Kathalagere, Channagiri : (estd.1979), Mega Seed project is in operation; Main centre of Farming System Research(AICRP) is in operation.

11.    Seed Farm, Honnavile, Shimoga: Mega seed project is in operation.

12.    Seed Farm, Bhavikere .IFS Bhavikere model and  Mega seed project is in operation,

13.    Seed Farm, Kademadakal, Mudigere, Rice seed production activity is going on.

14.    Agricultural Resaerch Station, Ponnampet, (estd. 1951) for research on rice for hilly zone

15.    Arecanut Research Station, Thirthahalli, (estd. 200  ) located in Shimoga dist. for research on Areca.

16.    Areca Research Station, Sringeri, (estd. 2009), located in Chikmagalore dist. for research on Areca.

 

EXTENSION

 

Following Krishi Vignana Kendras are working on need based technology transfer to the farmers of the following districts.

1.         Krishi Vignana Kendra, Shimoga

2.         Krishi Vignana Kendra, Mudigere

3.         Krishi Vignana Kendra, Udupi, Brahmavara

4.         Krishi Vignana Kendra, Chitradurga, Babbur, Hiriyur

5.        Extension Education Unit, Kathalagere

6.        Extension Education Unit, Ponnampet

 

III.       LINKAGES WITH OTHER INSTITUTES

         

The university works in close linkage with the following Education / research/ extension institutes coming under other organizations in the jurisdictional area of this university.

 

1.      Central Plantation Crop Research Institute, Vitla (ICAR),

2.      Directorate of Cashew Research, Puttur (ICAR),

3.      Fisheries College, Mangalore,(KVAFSU, Bidar),

4.      Veterinary College, Shimoga, (KVAFSU, Bidar),

5.      Central Coffee Research Institute, Balehonnur (CSIR),

6.      Cardamom Research Institute, Appangala, Madikeri, (ICAR),

7.      Spice Crop Research Institute, Sakaleshpura (CSIR),

8.      Indian Institute of Science, Sub center, Challakere,

9.      Krishi Vignana Kendra, Kodagu, Gonikoppal, (IIHR, Bangalore, ICAR),

10.  Krishi Vignana Kendra, Davanagere (Taralabalu Trust, NGO),

11.  Krishi Vignana Kendra, Dakshina Kannada (KVAFSU, Bidar),

12.  Citrus Research Station, Chattalli Kodagu

 

 

IV.        LAND USE AND AGRICULTURAL SITUATION

 

LAND USE PATTERN: Out of the total geographical area of 4.18 million ha, cultivable area is 2.09 million ha and forest area is1.00 million ha. Cultivated land accounts for 49.9 % of the total geographic area and the cropping intensity is 115%.

 

It covers ecologically rich and sensitive Westrn Ghat area (Sahyadri range), with thick evergreen forests of high economical and conservation value. A sizable area is planted with Acacia X Mangium hybrids and eucalyptus for the purpose of pulpwood production for paper industry.

 

 

 

 

 

Sl.no.

District

Total geographic area (ha)

Forest area (ha)

Cultivable area (ha)

Net sown area (ha)

Gross cropped area(ha)

Net area under irrigation (ha)

Per cent area under irrigation (%)

1

Shimoga

847784

276855

260961

218083

255854

132040

61

2

Chikkamagalur

722075

200485

307046

295920

329269

33075

11

3

Kodagu

410775

134597

175289

165035

178479

4700

3

4

Dakshina Kannada

477149

128476

193185

131077

157926

70367

54

5

Udupi

356446

100102

154704

101318

123474

32966

33

6

Davanagere

597597

89918

418692

392179

460772

157098

40

7

Chitradurga

770702

73719

579133

429980

481430

82241

19

 

Total

4182528

1004152

2089010

1733592

1987204

512487

26

 

% of state total

21.96

32.69

16.87

17.04

16.07

15.83

32

 

AGRO-CLIMATIC SITUATIONS:

 

The jurisdictional area of the UA&HS, Shimoga includes vivid agro-climatic situations, covering Coastal Zone (8 taluks), Hill Zone (12 taluks), Southern Transitional Zone (6 taluks), Central Dry Zone (10 taluks) and Nortern Dry Zone (1 taluk).

              

Rainfall: Annual rainfall ranges from around 550 mm in Dry zones to 4000 mm in Coastal zone. In Coastal and Hill zones, rainfall is mainly received from South-West monsoon and is distributed mainly between June and September, whereas, in Transition and Dry zones it is received both from South West and North East monsoons and is distributed from May to November.

 

Soils: The area of UA&HS, Shimoga has got almost all types of major soils found in Karnataka. Coastal and Hill zones contain highly porous, acidic laterite soils, coastal alluvial soils and red loamy soils. Southern Transition Zone consists of red sandy, red loamy, and mixed red and black soils, while light red, red loamy, medium black and deep black soils are found in dry zones.  

 

Irrigation: The area is blessed with good irrigation facilities from major and medium dams, and many small, medium and big tanks. The major irrigation projects are, Bhadra, project (Lakkavalli dam), Tunga project and Upper Tunga project (Gajanur dam), Harangi project, Varahi project (in progress), and Upper Bhadra project (in progress). Ground water resource is rather poor in this area, with most of the taluks coming under either grey area or black area. Ground water is the major source of irrigation in some of the taluks in Dry zones.

 

Farming situations: This area represents a unique mixed farming situation involving field crops - mainly rice, maize, sugarcane, pulses, cotton etc), horticultural crops (mainly plantation crops and fruit crops), animal husbandry (mainly dairy, sheep, poultry), agro-forestry, fisheries (both marine and inland), etc. Kharif is the major cropping season in most of the areas. However, a large area in Central Dry zone is covered during rabi season. The area under different crops grown in the jurisdictional area of the UA&HS, Shimoga is given below.    

 

Area coverage under major crops:

I.  Area under field crops (ha)

Sl.no.

District

Cereals and millets

Pulses

Oilseeds

Commercial crops

Total

1

Shimoga

172307

2039

3409

9271

187026

2

Chickamaglur

117103

25241

25624

3707

171675

3

Kodagu

39563

106

43

277

39989

4

Dakshina Kannada

54899

191

604

16

55710

5

Udupi

61512

8081

2229

23

71845

6

Davanagere

342089

9669

37446

16012

405216

7

Chitradurga

192078

50680

175678

16591

435027

 

Total

979551

96007

245033

45897

1366488

 

II.                Area under horticultural crops (ha)

Sl.no

District

Plantation crops

Spice crops

Fruit crops

Vegetable crops

Commercial flowers

Medicinal &aromatic

TOTAL

1

Shimoga

46292

6349

11530

858

256

32

65307

2

Chickamaglur

76281

11893

13038

10948

641

129

112930

3

Kodagu

7588

20737

2887

352

27

-

31564

4

Dakshina Kannada

86443

3157

6416

2643

110

159

98928

5

Udupi

44735

932

4505

1356

453

294

52275

6

Davanagere

46021

211

6127

10045

846

-

63250

7

Chitradurga

69596

2336

10854

22108

1059

32

105985

 

Total

376956

45615

55357

48310

3392

646

530239

 

% of state total

47.88

18.78

17.43

11.47

12.55

17.61

29.46

 

III.             Livestock population:

Sl.no

District

Cattle

Buffalo

Goats

Sheep

Total

1

Shimoga

542947

200133

60004

14113

817197

2

Chickamaglur

366563

106870

47953

62991

584377

3

Kodagu

116515

31616

4472

416

153019

4

Dakshina Kannada

343994

26715

17161

414

388284

5

Udupi

339034

49998

2007

5

391044

6

Davanagere

351320

220470

113389

205348

890527

7

Chitradurga

314278

183016

221354

714101

1432749

 

Total

2374651

818818

466340

997380

4657197

 

% of state total

24.7

20.3

10.4

13.7

18.6

 

Crops and cropping systems (Area in ha)

 

 

 

V.           CONTRAINTS IN AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION AND

 FUTURE VISION

 

General constraints: Acute labour shortage, migration of rural youth to urban areas, lack of skilled / trained manpower; problems in large scale adoption of farm mechanization, too many small land holdings, lack of infra-structure on the farms are some of the general problems faced in this area.

 

Location specific constraints: Highly acidic soils leading to imbalance in nutrient availability; very high rainfall (up to 4000 mm in four months) leading to washing of applied nutrients; highly undulating land terrain water scarcity during summer; severe incidence of gall midge, ear-head bug, neck blast, and stem borer in rice crop, nut rot (kole or mohali), root grub and yellow leaf disease of areca nut, Eryophid mites of coconut, slow and quick wilt of black pepper, tee mosquito of cashew are some of the specific constraints in Coastal and Hill regions. Low and highly variable rainfall (500 to 800 mm); long droughts during cropping season; eroded soils; lack of location specific varieties/hybrids in many crops; poor canal irrigation water management; Hidimundige disease of arecanut, black headed caterpillar and red palm weevil of coconut, downy mildew of maize, stem borer and neck blast of rice, bacterial wilt of pomegranate, etc are the specific problems of dry regions.    

 

Future vision: The new university will reorient its educational, research and extension programs to focus its attention on the above mentioned constraints with the ultimate objective of increasing the agricultural productivity of the region and improving the livelihood of the farmers. Besides,  the university has plans to initiate new degree and diploma courses in the important thrust areas to train the local youth to cater to the needs of the farmers. Starting of two new agricultural colleges one at Brahmavar in coastal zone and the other at Davangere in central dry zone are the immediate plans. The university also plans to initiate degree programs in the areas of food science and technology, agricultural engineering and agricultural marketing. Keeping in view the regional importance of the crops and their specific problems the new university has already proposed fifteen new AICRP’S  during XII plan which, if granted, will help in reorienting the focus on regional needs more effectively.

 

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